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Automation Testing Types

From the evolutions across the software development world, one that strikes as a priority chord is quality and reliability in application deliverables. Automation testing does emerge as one of the cornerstones providing an approach to systematic software functionality, performance, and user experience validation. Automation testing is testing of a system or an application using specialised tools which run predefined test cases in order to enhance the efficiency, accuracy, and coverage of testing of the system, unlike in manual testing. This, in turn, replaces manual to automated processes and fastens the development cycle, thus making it easily possible for continuous integration and delivery and hence an indispensable part of modern software practice. This blog discusses the different types of automation testing, each catering to particular testing needs and objectives in the software development life cycle as we move on further into this realm of automation testing.


Automation Testing Defined


Automation testing is the practice of running pre-scripted tests on a software application before it is released into production, using software tools. This is very different from the manual testing process, which involves a human tester carrying out running of test cases without the involvement of any automation tools. Automated testing is meant for validation over a wide range of aspects with the software under test, among the most common, which can be its functionality, performance, and compliance with some required specifications.


Automation vs. Manual Testing


The key difference between the two is, no doubt, efficiency and scalability. Manual testing is required, as a matter of fact, in most exploratory, usability, and ad-hoc testing scenarios where human intuition and creativity are required, though it is not very quick or consistent. On the other hand, automation testing is best suited to cases where the regression cases are presented, and a repetitively data-driven and the same set of tasks need to be executed over and again. Automating these tasks will relieve the developers and testers from these regular activities and allow them to focus on more refined testing strategies and development activities that will definitely improve the quality of the software product.


Role in the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC)


Testing automation is key from the initial development phases to post-deployment across the SDLC. Only the units, integrations, and functioning of the single components occur in the very first phases to check their interaction. Functional and regression tests assure new functionality doesn't break existing functionality as scaling up the application, while performance testing assures the application meets the provided performance benchmarks over various conditions. It helps the teams to identify the issues on time by integrating automation testing in every phase and helps to save the software delivery cost and time.


Using automation testing in the SDLC helps make not only the process of testing easier but also achieves higher software quality, efficient use of resources, and faster time-to-market, which is an indomitable strategy for a modern software development team.


Types of Automation Testing


Being able to apply the right kind of testing strategy in software development, many times understanding the basic concepts of different types of automation testing becomes very important. Each of the following types deals with some part of the application - from individual functions to the performance of the whole system under stress. Now, let's dwell on the main types of automation testing.



1. Unit Testing


Unit Testing is the basis for all testing types. It tests the smallest testable parts of an application—or rather, the units—for correct operation independently. In practice, this is the activity done by developers in code development so that every individual part can be tested for correct operation before being brought together into the application.


Tools and Example


Unit testing commonly makes use of tools such as JUnit for Java applications and NUnit for the .NET framework. For example, a developer writing a new class to calculate user age based on date of birth would write a series of tests for this class to verify the output of correct ages based on different input dates.



2. Integration Testing


Integration Testing focuses on the points where individual units are combined and tested as a group. This type of testing finds defects in the interaction between integrated units.


Tools and Example


Tools such as TestNG and Postman may be used for integration testing. User age calculation class must interact with a database where the profiles of the user are being stored, and it must fetch and use the data to calculate and assign age to the user.


3. Functional Testing


Functional Testing is a category of testing that verifies the software against business requirements. It ensures testing the functionalities of the software system under test, which includes User Interface, API, Database, Security, and Functionality of the application.


Tools and Example


Popular functional testing tools include Selenium and QuickTest Professional (QTP). For example, actions which could be performed during functional testing may include the automation of actions to create a new user profile at a website, checking if a user is able to register and log in properly, and further update his profile in case it is required.






4. Regression Testing


Regression Testing is crucial for maintaining software quality over time, ensuring that new code changes do not adversely affect existing functionality. It's often automated because it requires frequent execution throughout the software development lifecycle.


Tools and Example


Tools such as Ranorex and Katalon Studio are popular for regression testing. An example of regression testing would be automatically re-running previously passed tests on a software application after it has been updated to ensure that the new changes have not introduced any new bugs.


5. Performance Testing


Performance Testing checks different issues, such as stability, speed, scalability, and responsiveness of the software application under some specific workload. It is a very important measure to assure that the application can take high traffic and data processing.


Tools and Example


Performance testing is carried out with tools like JMeter and LoadRunner. For example, while performing a performance test, thousands of users can be simulated to hit a web application at the same time, ensuring that during peak hours, the web application can bear all the load without degrading performance.


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Choosing the Right Automation Testing Type


Here are certain considerations that help in selecting the right type of automation testing, which depends on project requirements and their stage of development, along with the resource available:


Project Requirements: Understand what the particular test targets are and why these should be tested—for example, when a new feature is being launched, where emphasis will be given to functional and regression testing.


Team Expertise: Consider the skills and experience of your team. Some testing types may require specialized knowledge.


Software Complexity: It would be the complexity of the application that will actually decide the level of testing needed. In other words, very complex systems may need more exhaustive integration and performance testing.


Balancing these factors is crucial in choosing the most effective and efficient testing strategy for your project.


Also know in depth about : What is Automation Testing?


Conclusion


The major part of the software development process is automation testing, as it increases efficiency, accuracy, and coverage in the testing efforts. Understanding and enforcing many types of automation testing, a team can make sure its applications are of the required high standards of quality. Due to changing technology, some automation testing techniques will need to be continuously learned and adopted by the software development professional. Integrating automated testing into your development lifecycle is not only a best practice but is required just to stay competitive with other companies in today's fast-paced software industry.


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